Friday, April 4, 2014

OpenVZ: Mounting Host Devices/Partitions/Directories In A Container



OpenVZ: Mounting Host Devices/Partitions/Directories In A Container 

Preparing The Host

Host:
If you have added a new hard drive to the host, you should see it in the output of...
fdisk -l
... and you should see that it is unformatted (unless you have created partitions on it previously) - in this example the hard drive is /dev/sdb:
root@server1:~# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 32.2 GB, 32212254720 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3916 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00029d5c

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1        3793    30461952   83  Linux
/dev/sda2            3793        3917      992257    5  Extended
/dev/sda5            3793        3917      992256   82  Linux swap / Solaris

Disk /dev/sdb: 32.2 GB, 32212254720 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3916 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/sdb doesn't contain a valid partition table
root@server1:~#
Let's create one single partition on it:
fdisk /dev/sdb
root@server1:~# fdisk /dev/sdb
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x31e0dc4b.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
         switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
         sectors (command 'u').

Command (m for help):
 <-- n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)

<-- p
Partition number (1-4): <-- 1
First cylinder (1-3916, default 1): <-- ENTER
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-3916, default 3916):
 <-- ENTER
Using default value 3916

Command (m for help):
 <-- t
Selected partition 1
Hex code (type L to list codes):
 <-- L

 0  Empty           24  NEC DOS         81  Minix / old Lin bf  Solaris
 1  FAT12           39  Plan 9          82  Linux swap / So c1  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 2  XENIX root      3c  PartitionMagic  83  Linux           c4  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 3  XENIX usr       40  Venix 80286     84  OS/2 hidden C:  c6  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 4  FAT16 <32M      41  PPC PReP Boot   85  Linux extended  c7  Syrinx
 5  Extended        42  SFS             86  NTFS volume set da  Non-FS data
 6  FAT16           4d  QNX4.x          87  NTFS volume set db  CP/M / CTOS / .
 7  HPFS/NTFS       4e  QNX4.x 2nd part 88  Linux plaintext de  Dell Utility
 8  AIX             4f  QNX4.x 3rd part 8e  Linux LVM       df  BootIt
 9  AIX bootable    50  OnTrack DM      93  Amoeba          e1  DOS access
 a  OS/2 Boot Manag 51  OnTrack DM6 Aux 94  Amoeba BBT      e3  DOS R/O
 b  W95 FAT32       52  CP/M            9f  BSD/OS          e4  SpeedStor
 c  W95 FAT32 (LBA) 53  OnTrack DM6 Aux a0  IBM Thinkpad hi eb  BeOS fs
 e  W95 FAT16 (LBA) 54  OnTrackDM6      a5  FreeBSD         ee  GPT
 f  W95 Ext'd (LBA) 55  EZ-Drive        a6  OpenBSD         ef  EFI (FAT-12/16/
10  OPUS            56  Golden Bow      a7  NeXTSTEP        f0  Linux/PA-RISC b
11  Hidden FAT12    5c  Priam Edisk     a8  Darwin UFS      f1  SpeedStor
12  Compaq diagnost 61  SpeedStor       a9  NetBSD          f4  SpeedStor
14  Hidden FAT16 <3 63  GNU HURD or Sys ab  Darwin boot     f2  DOS secondary
16  Hidden FAT16    64  Novell Netware  af  HFS / HFS+      fb  VMware VMFS
17  Hidden HPFS/NTF 65  Novell Netware  b7  BSDI fs         fc  VMware VMKCORE
18  AST SmartSleep  70  DiskSecure Mult b8  BSDI swap       fd  Linux raid auto
1b  Hidden W95 FAT3 75  PC/IX           bb  Boot Wizard hid fe  LANstep
1c  Hidden W95 FAT3 80  Old Minix       be  Solaris boot    ff  BBT
1e  Hidden W95 FAT1
Hex code (type L to list codes):
 <-- 83

Command (m for help): <-- w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
root@server1:~#

Afterwards, there should be the partition /dev/sdb1:
fdisk -l
root@server1:~# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 32.2 GB, 32212254720 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3916 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00029d5c

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1        3793    30461952   83  Linux
/dev/sda2            3793        3917      992257    5  Extended
/dev/sda5            3793        3917      992256   82  Linux swap / Solaris

Disk /dev/sdb: 32.2 GB, 32212254720 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3916 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x31e0dc4b

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1        3916    31455238+  83  Linux
root@server1:~#
Let's format it with ext4...
mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb1
... and mount it to /mnt/sdb1:
mkdir /mnt/sdb1
mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/sdb1
You should see /dev/sdb1 in the output of...
mount
... now:
root@server1:~# mount
/dev/sda1 on / type ext3 (rw,errors=remount-ro)
tmpfs on /lib/init/rw type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,mode=0755)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
udev on /dev type tmpfs (rw,mode=0755)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,noexec,nosuid,gid=5,mode=620)
/dev/sdb1 on /mnt/sdb1 type ext4 (rw)
root@server1:~#
To have /dev/sdb1 mounted automatically at boot time, add it to /etc/fstab:
vi /etc/fstab
[...]
/dev/sdb1 /mnt/sdb1               ext4    errors=remount-ro 0       1

Fr. terminal:
root@server1:~# mount -a
root@server1:~#df -h ( to check if mount drive is mounted)

Ref://http://www.howtoforge.com/openvz-mounting-host-devices-partitions-directories-in-a-container-with-bind-mounts-debian-ubuntu

Tuesday, February 4, 2014

How to setup NFS client (mount)

    
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NFS (Network File System) is basically developed for sharing of files and folders between Linux/Unix systems by Sun Microsystems in 1980. It allows you to mount your local file systems over a network and remote hosts to interact with them as they are mounted locally on the same system. With the help of NFS, we can set up file sharing between Unix to Linux system and Linux to Unix system.
Install NFS Server in Linux
Setup NFS Server and NFS Client in Linux
Benefits of NFS
  1. NFS allows local access to remote files.
  2. It uses standard client/server architecture for file sharing between all *nix based machines.
  3. With NFS it is not necessary that both machines run on the same OS.
  4. With the help of NFS we can configure centralized storage solutions.
  5. Users get their data irrespective of physical location.
  6. No manual refresh needed for new files.
  7. Newer version of NFS also supports acl, pseudo root mounts.
  8. Can be secured with Firewalls and Kerberos.
NFS Services
Its a System V-launched service. The NFS server package includes three facilities, included in the portmap and nfs-utils packages.
  1. portmap : It maps calls made from other machines to the correct RPC service (not required with NFSv4).
  2. nfs: It translates remote file sharing requests into requests on the local file system.
  3. rpc.mountd: This service is responsible for mounting and unmounting of file systems.
Important Files for NFS Configuration
  1. /etc/exports : Its a main configuration file of NFS, all exported files and directories are defined in this file at the NFS Server end.
  2. /etc/fstab : To mount a NFS directory on your system across the reboots, we need to make an entry in /etc/fstab.
  3. /etc/sysconfig/nfs : Configuration file of NFS to control on which port rpc and other services are listening.

Setup and Configure NFS Mounts on Linux Server

To setup NFS mounts, we’ll be needing at least two Linux/Unix machines. Here in this tutorial, I’ll be using two servers.
  1. NFS Server: nfsserver.example.com with IP-192.168.0.100
  2. NFS Client : nfsclient.example.com with IP-192.168.0.101
Installing NFS Server and NFS Client
We need to install NFS packages on our NFS Server as well as on NFS Client machine. We can install it via “yum” (Red Hat Linux) and “apt-get” (Debian and Ubuntu) package installers.
[root@nfsserver ~]# yum install nfs-utils nfs-utils-lib
[root@nfsserver ~]# yum install portmap (not required with NFSv4)
[root@nfsserver ~]# apt-get install nfs-utils nfs-utils-lib
Now start the services on both machines.
[root@nfsserver ~]# /etc/init.d/portmap start
[root@nfsserver ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs start
[root@nfsserver ~]# chkconfig --level 35 portmap on
[root@nfsserver ~]# chkconfig --level 35 nfs on
After installing packages and starting services on both the machines, we need to configure both the machines for file sharing.

Setting Up the NFS Server

First we will be configuring the NFS server.
Configure Export directory
For sharing a directory with NFS, we need to make an entry in “/etc/exports” configuration file. Here I’ll be creating a new directory named “nfsshare” in “/” partition to share with client server, you can also share an already existing directory with NFS.
[root@nfsserver ~]# mkdir /nfsshare
Now we need to make an entry in “/etc/exports” and restart the services to make our directory shareable in the network.
[root@nfsserver ~]# vi /etc/exports

/nfsshare 192.168.0.101(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
In the above example, there is a directory in / partition named “nfsshare” is being shared with client IP “192.168.0.101” with read and write (rw) privilege, you can also use hostname of the client in the place of IP in above example.
NFS Options
Some other options we can use in “/etc/exports” file for file sharing is as follows.
  1. ro: With the help of this option we can provide read only access to the shared files i.e client will only be able to read.
  2. rw: This option allows the client server to both read and write access within the shared directory.
  3. sync: Sync confirms requests to the shared directory only once the changes have been committed.
  4. no_subtree_check: This option prevents the subtree checking. When a shared directory is the subdirectory of a larger file system, nfs performs scans of every directory above it, in order to verify its permissions and details. Disabling the subtree check may increase the reliability of NFS, but reduce security.
  5. no_root_squash: This phrase allows root to connect to the designated directory.
For more options with “/etc/exports“, you are recommended to read the man pages for export.

Setting Up the NFS Client

After configuring the NFS server, we need to mount that shared directory or partition in the client server.
Mount Shared Directories on NFS Client
Now at the NFS client end, we need to mount that directory in our server to access it locally. To do so, first we need to find out that shares available on the remote server or NFS Server.
[root@nfsclient ~]# showmount -e 192.168.0.100

Export list for 192.168.0.100:
/nfsshare 192.168.0.101
Above command shows that a directory named “nfsshare” is available at “192.168.0.100” to share with your server.
Mount Shared NFS Directory
To mount that shared NFS directory we can use following mount command.
[root@nfsclient ~]# mount -t nfs 192.168.0.100:/nfsshare /mnt/nfsshare
The above command will mount that shared directory in “/mnt/nfsshare” on the client server. You can verify it following command.
[root@nfsclient ~]# mount | grep nfs

sunrpc on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw)
nfsd on /proc/fs/nfsd type nfsd (rw)
192.168.0.100:/nfsshare on /mnt type nfs (rw,addr=192.168.0.100)
The above mount command mounted the nfs shared directory on to nfs client temporarily, to mount an NFS directory permanently on your system across the reboots, we need to make an entry in “/etc/fstab“.
[root@nfsclient ~]# vi /etc/fstab
Add the following new line as shown below.
192.168.0.100:/nfsshare /mnt  nfs defauls 0 0

Test the Working of NFS Setup

We can test our NFS server setup by creating a test file on the server end and check its availability at nfs client side or vice-versa.
At the nfsserver end
I have created a new text file named “nfstest.txt’ in that shared directory.
[root@nfsserver ~]# cat > /nfsshare/nfstest.txt

This is a test file to test the working of NFS server setup.
At the nfsclient end
Go to that shared directory in client server and you’ll find that shared file without any manual refresh or service restart.
[root@nfsclient]# ll /mnt/nfsshare
total 4
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 61 Sep 21 21:44 nfstest.txt
root@nfsclient ~]# cat /mnt/nfsshare/nfstest.txt
This is a test file to test the working of NFS server setup.

Removing the NFS Mount

If you want to unmount that shared directory from your server after you are done with the file sharing, you can simply unmount that particular directory with “umount” command. See this example below.
root@nfsclient ~]# umount /mnt/nfsshare
You can see that the mounts were removed by then looking at the filesystem again.
[root@nfsclient ~]# df -h -F nfs
You’ll see that those shared directories are not available any more.
Important commands for NFS
Some more important commands for NFS.
  1. showmount -e : Shows the available shares on your local machine
  2. showmount -e <server-ip or hostname>: Lists the available shares at the remote server
  3. showmount -d : Lists all the sub directories
  4. exportfs -v : Displays a list of shares files and options on a server
  5. exportfs -a : Exports all shares listed in /etc/exports, or given name
  6. exportfs -u : Unexports all shares listed in /etc/exports, or given name
  7. exportfs -r : Refresh the server’s list after modifying /etc/exports
This is it with NFS mounts for now, this was just a start, I’ll come up with more option and features of NFS in our future articles. Till then, Stay connected with Tecmint.com for more exciting and interesting tutorials in future. Do leave your comments and suggestions below in the comment box.

Referemce:  www.tecmint.com/how-to-setup-nfs-server-in-linux/


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